هدف این تحقیق بررسی تأثیر قابلیتهای بازاریابی رابطه مند از طریق متغیر میانجی بازاریابی الکترونیکی بر عملکرد تجاری سایتهای فروش اینترنتی میباشد. تحقیق حاضر به لحاظ هدف، کاربردی و از نظر ماهیت و شیوه جمعآوری اطلاعات، توصیفی از نوع همبستگی؛ و به طور مشخص مبتنی بر مدلیابی معادلات ساختاری میباشد. جامعه آماری در تحقیق حاضر، شامل مشتریان سایتهای فروش اینترنتی کالا در ایران نظیر دیجی کالا، تهران کالاو ... میباشد و بر طبق جدول مورگان تعداد 380 نفر بهعنوان نمونه پرسشنامه الکترونیکی بین آنها پخش گردید. روش نمونهگیری این پژوهش در دسترس میباشد. ابزار گردآوری در تحقیق حاضر سه پرسشنامه که شامل پرسشنامه عملکرد تجاری میرلس، راندل و لای (2011) آسیخیا (2009)، پرسشنامه بازاریابی الکترونیک تسیوتسو و ویلاچوپلو (2011) آسیخیا (2009)، پرسشنامه قابلیتهای بازاریابی رابطهمند تحقیق آزادگان فومنی (1392) استفاده گردیده است. یافتههای پژوهش مربوط به فرضیه فرعی اول نشان داد بازاریابی رابطهمند با ضریب 982/0 و به بیان دیگر به اندازه 2/98 درصد با عملکرد تجاری سایتهای فروش الکترونیکی رابطه دارد. همچنین یافتههای پژوهش مربوط به فرضیه فرعی دوم نشان داد بازاریابی رابطهمند با ضریب 91/0 و به بیان دیگر به اندازه 91 درصد با بازاریابی الکترونیک رابطه دارد. یافتههای پژوهش مربوط به فرضیه فرعی سوم نشان داد بازاریابی الکترونیک با ضریب 489/0 و به بیان دیگر به اندازه 9/48 درصد با عملکرد تجاری رابطه دارد. همچنین یافتههای فرضیه اصلی نشان داد که شاخص بازاریابی رابطهمند با ضریب 457/0 و به بیان دیگر به اندازه 7/45 درصد با عملکرد تجاری سایتهای فروش اینترنتی با تأکید بر نقش میانجی بازاریابی الکترونیک رابطه دارد.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Investigating the Impact of Relation-based Marketing and E-Marketing Capabilities on the Commercial Performance of Internet Sales Sites
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of relation-based marketing capabilities through the mediator variable of e-marketing on the business performance of online sales sites. The present research is applicable in terms of purpose and descriptive-correlative in terms of nature and method of data collection; and is specifically based on structural equation modeling. The statistical population in the present study includes customers of online goods sales sites in Iran such as Digi Kala, Tehran Kala, etc., and according to Morgan's table, 380 people were selected as the sample, among whom the electronic questionnaire was distributed. Sampling method of this research is available. The collection tool in the present study is three questionnaires, which include the business performance questionnaire of Myrles, Randall and Lai (2011), Asikhia (2009), the electronic marketing questionnaire of Tsiotsu and Villachoplo (2011), the questionnaire of relation-based marketing capabilities of Azadegan Foumani (2013). Findings of the research related to the first sub-hypothesis showed that relation-based marketing has a coefficient of 0.982; in other words as much as 98.2% is related to the business performance of electronic sales sites. Also, the research findings related to the second sub-hypothesis showed that relation-based marketing has a coefficient of 0.91; in other words, 91% is related to e-marketing. Findings of the research related to the third sub-hypothesis showed that e-marketing has a coefficient of 0.479; in other words as much as 47.9% is related to business performance. Also, the findings of the main hypothesis showed that the relation-based marketing index has a coefficient of 0.457, in other words as much as 45.7% is related to the business performance of online sales sites with emphasis on the mediating role of e-marketing.
With the proliferation of e-businesses, consumers have become increasingly inclined to shop online, so that, due to the influence of the Internet on business, and the formation of the foundation of the digital economy, to achieve the goals of modern marketing in e-commerce, e-marketing has drawn attention and is a key factor in the competitiveness of international markets (Taj Zadeh Namin & Martaei Ghare Bagh, 2010). On the other hand, with the increasing expansion of the field of e-commerce, the speed and quality of customer service has also increased and has caused companies to have more control over quality components to ensure the accuracy of delivery of goods and its timeliness so that they can meet the growing needs of customers and satisfy them. The use of e-business in business activities requires attention to endogenous and exogenous factors influencing it (Amini & Ali Nezhad, 2019).
Given the importance of the two concepts of the capabilities of relation-based marketing and e-marketing in the field of domestic and foreign competition, companies have to acquire and strengthen marketing capabilities to improve their business performance, survival and growth in domestic and international markets and gain competitive position, and apply e-marketing as new technological activities (Taleghani & Mehdi Zadeh, 2016). E-marketing is, in fact, the use of the internet and other interactive technologies to create a relationship and mediation between the company and customers. This innovative activity develops new ways of interacting with customers and provides new service delivery systems, and leads to reducing costs, growth and profitability of companies and entering new markets, improving market share and creating a positive mindset about products, services and company's brand, and high business performance; and can improve service productivity, service quality and profitability (Tsiotsou & Vlachopoulou, 2011). Therefore, it can be argued that, given the importance of the two concepts of relation-based marketing and e-marketing capabilities in the field of domestic and foreign competition, companies have to acquire and trengthen the marketing capabilities to improve their business performance, survive, grow in domestic and international markets, and gain competitive position, and use e-marketing as a new technological activity. Therefore, in the present study, an attempt has been made to investigate the effect of relation-based marketing capabilities on the business performance of internet sales sites in Iran, and also by considering the electronic marketing moderator variable. relation-based marketing has been able to create shared values, as an important dimension in building the relationship between buyer and seller in online sales sites. This research tries to measure the commercial performance of these sites by using the e-marketing moderator variable. According to the above, the main issue of the research is whether the relation-based marketing capabilities through the e-marketing intermediate variable has an effect on the business performance of Internet sales sites or not.
With the expansion of the Internet and customers turning to this phenomenon in order to meet their needs, companies have the opportunity to attract the customers through new Internet services and increase sales of goods. On the other hand, the intensification of competition between companies providing services through the virtual world has caused companies to seek to retain their existing customers rather than attract new customers. This has led to arise of concepts such as relation-based marketing and e-marketing and business practice in companies. Nowadays, due to the increasing development of information technology and increasing competition in global markets, the users of textual marketing methods stay away from the global market (Varmaghani et al, 2017) and the use of effective and modern tourism marketing tools such as e-marketing is essential for a country or a region. With the advent of e-commerce, organizations are changing their business (Montazari et al, 2014). E-marketing is defined as the use of the Internet and related technologies, along with other marketing communication tools, to achieve marketing goals (Ghareh et al., 2018). Zare Dare & Taghavi, (2020) examined relation-based marketing. They concluded that organizations are required to go beyond the basic needs of customers, meet customer expectations, and focus on satisfying the customer's need to build loyalty and trust, through long-term, two-way and profitable communication (communication quality). Rezaei et al (2020) examined the alignment of e-marketing with the overall strategy of commercial organizations. This study seeks to answer the question of how to align e-marketing programs used in online commercial organizations with the organization's enterprise level strategies to increase the success of the organization. The research result showed that the alignment of e-marketing and macro strategies of the organization is necessary, and a model for the purpose was provided.
The present research is applicable in terms of purpose; and a descriptive correlative type in terms of nature and method of data collection, and specifically based on structural equation modeling. The statistical population in the present study includes customers of online sales sites in Iran, such as Digi Kala, etc. Based on the fact that students are also a large part of the buyers of goods on Internet sites, a group of students; associate, bachelor, master and doctorate of the Islamic Azad University of Tehran, approximately at least 40 thousand people, is considered. Based on the statistical population of 40,000 students, users of online sales sites, and according to Morgan's table, the electronic questionnaire were distributed among 380 people as a sample. The questionnaires of Mirles et al (2011) and Asikhia (2009) were used to collect data on business performance variable, and the questionnaires of Tsiotsou & Vlachopoulou (2011) and Asikhia (2009) for electronic marketing variable, and the research questionnaire of Azadegan Fomani (2013) for the variable of relation-based marketing capabilities.
Discussion and Results
In order to test the research hypothesis, structural equation modeling method was used with the help of SPSS software, inferential statistics was used to test the hypotheses. Then, amos software was used to test the hypotheses or conceptual model of the research, and the results of the main hypothesis showed that e-marketing mediates the relation-based marketing capabilities and business performance of online sales sites. The relation-based marketing index has a coefficient of 0.457; in other words as much as 45.7% is related to the business performance of online sales sites with emphasis on the mediating role of e-marketing. This means that the effect of the modifier variable on the relationship between marketing capabilities and performance is positive and significant, and relation-based marketing has the coefficient of 0.982, in other words, as much as 98.2% is related to the business performance of electronic sales sites. At the confidence level of 0.95 and considering the t-value which is equal to 8.678, it can be said that there is a significant relationship between relation-based marketing and business performance of e-sales sites, and relation-based marketing with a coefficient of 0.91 and in other words as much as 91% has a relationship with e-marketing. At the confidence level of 0.95 and considering the t-value which is equal to 12.472, it can be said that there is a significant relationship between relation-based marketing and electronic marketing of e-sales sites.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of relation-based marketing and e-marketing capabilities on the business performance of online sales sites. The results of this study are consistent with the results of Harandi et al (2017); in this study, the innovative effect of relation-based marketing strategies (financial, social and structural links) on customer relationship performance (duration, depth and breadth of communication) through communication satisfaction and communication commitment in using modern e-banking services has been investigated. It is also consistent with the results of Moein et al (2017). They discussed the relationship between relation-based marketing and improving customer satisfaction in Mellat Banks in Shiraz. The results showed that there is a significant relationship between relation-based marketing and customer satisfaction, which is also consistent with the results of Herandi et al (2017). In this study, the innovative effect of relation-based marketing strategies (financial, social and structural links) on customer relationship performance (duration, depth and breadth of communication) through communication satisfaction and communication commitment in using modern e-banking services has been investigated. According to the present research, it is suggested to the managers of the company to try to present their products with better advantages than the competitors through market tour and presence in the field of competition and exhibitions and getting acquainted with the latest market changes and discovering the strategies and tactics of competitors, and use advertising and promotions and capabilities of the company. Also, to attract more international customers for export, equip their databases to provide information and online support, provide online product catalogs to customers, provide or send newsletters, magazines and e-mails to customers, and by providing online ordering and purchasing opportunity, improve their performance